No plant is deer proof. It’s better to say rarely damaged, or seldom severely damaged. These types of perennials are least preferred by deer, rabbits, and other wildlife. Success will depend on the local deer populations, how hard food is to find, and weather conditions. That said, you can encourage a deer to stop by to eat a lunch of tender shoots and soft leaves. The alternative is to offer a buffet of bristles, wiry stems, thorns and prickles, strong scents, waxy coatings or chemicals that taste bitter or bad.

Here is our list of perennials known to leave a terrible taste for deer, or to present a serious challenge to chewing:

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